Community-Based Strategic Policing in Canada (2nd Edition)

Brian Whitelaw (Calgary Police Services)
Rick Parent (Delta, BC Police)
Curt Griffiths (Simon Fraser University)

Published by Nelson Education Ltd.
© 2004

This book can be purchased from

The world has changed since the first edition of this text. New terrorism fears and a broading of mandate for police to protect society from both internal and external threats are stretching the limits of police forces across the country. The second edition of this book introduces you to e idea that community-based policing has evolved and will continue to adapt to increasing demands, calling for a model of policing that is much more strategic in nature--whether in e allocation of resources or in finding approaches designed to engage and mobilize the community.

Specific changes to this edition of this book include more exercises and end-of-unit questions, and expanded examples covering all parts of Canada. This text combinesthe most up-to-date materials on the subject with case studies and exercises, continually making the connection between the literature available and the practical applications of key ideas and concepts.


Unit 1: Policing in Canada

Chapter 1: Overview of Canadian Policing
The Origins and Evolution of Policing
The Development of Policing in England
The Development of Modern Policing
A Brief History of Canadian Policing
Municipal Policing
Provincial Police
Federal Police
The Mounties
Evolution of the Police Role
The Structure of Contemporary Canadian Policing
Independent Municipal Police Services
Provincial Police Services
Royal Canadian Mounted Police
Regional Police Services
Aboriginal Policing
Police Accountability
Police Boards and Police Commissions
Police Conduct Review Agencies and Adjudicative Bodies
Professional Standards Units
The Contemporary Roles of the Police
Public Perceptions and Expectations of the Police
The Contexts of Police Work
The Crime Context
The Legislative Context
The Criminal Justice System
The Police Service
The Social and Demographic Attributes of Communities
The Community Context
Trends in Policing
Trend 1. Adoption of the Philosophy and Practice of Community Policing
Trend 2. A Reduction in the Overall Numbers of Police Officers
Trend 3. An Increase in the Numbers of Volunteers Involved in Policing
Trend 4. Increasing Collaboration between Police Services and Other Agencies and Community Organizations
Trend 5. Adoption of Business-Like Corporate Models and Best Practices by Police Services
Trend 6. The Changing Face of Policing
Trend 7. The Rise of Private Security and Collaborative Policing
Trend 8. Increasing Accountability of the Police
Trend 9. A Focus on Leadership and Professionalism
Trend 10. The Changing Structure of Police Organizations

Unit 2: Understanding Community Policing

Chapter 2: What is Community Policing?
The Traditional or Professional Model of Policing
Traditional Patrol Practice: The Three R’s
Traditional Police Practice: How Effective Is It?
Clearance Rates as a Measure of Police Effectiveness
The Effectiveness of Random, Reactive Patrol
The Persistence of Traditional Police Attitudes and Practices
Other Ways to Measure Police Performance and Effectiveness
What Is Community Policing?
Community Policing Defined
The Principles of Community Policing: The Three P’s
The Policy and Practice of Community Policing
What Community Policing is Not
Turning Principles into Practice
Community Policing: All Things to All People?
Criticisms of Community Policing
Strategic Partnerships and Community Policing
A Partnership of the Key Players
A Partnership of Public Services
Community Policing in Ontario
The Evolution of Community Policing in Ontario
Community Policing Today in Ontario
Legislative Requirements for Community Policing across Canada
The Community Policing Checklist
Community-Based Strategic Policing

Unit 3: Crime Prevention and Crime Response Within A Community Policing Framework

Chapter 3: Responding to and Preventing Crime within a Community Policing Framework
Proactive Targeted Strategies
Addressing Crime: Tactical or Directed Patrol
The Effectiveness of Tactical of Directed Patrol
The Problems of Tactical of Directed Patrol
Community Service Approaches
Foot Patrol: Back to the Beat
Bicycle Patrols
Team Policing
Community Police Stations and Storefronts
Crime Prevention Programs
Primary Prevention Programs
Secondary Prevention Programs
Tertiary Prevention Programs
Other Approaches to Preventing and Reducing Crime
Crime Prevention through Social Development
Increasing Police Legitimacy
The “Broken Windows” Approach
High Technology in Crime Prevention: CCTVs – Big Help or Big Brother?
The Effectiveness of Crime Prevention Programs
Factors Limiting Program Effectiveness
Crime Prevention in Aboriginal Communities
Public Notification
Assessing Effectiveness

Chapter 4: Problem-Oriented Policing
What is Problem Solving?
What is a Problem and Whose Is It?
Collaborative Problem Solving
Not All Problems Are Law Enforcement Problems
Problem-Oriented Policing
The Problem-Solving Process
Problem-Solving Models Used by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police and Ontario Provincial Police
Problem Identification
Strategic Response
The PARE Problem-Solving Process in Action
Problem Identification
Write and Implement Action Plans
The Documented Plan
Conditions for Successful Problem Solving
Police Management’s Role in Creating a Problem-Solving Police Organization
Barriers to Effective Problem Solving

Chapter 5: Restorative Justice within a Community Policing Framework
What is Restorative Justice?
Principles and Objectives of Restorative Justice
Retributive and Restorative Justice Compared
The Dimensions of Restorative Justice
Victim-Offender Mediation
Circle Sentencing: A Partnership between the Community and the Criminal Justice System
Restorative Justice Initiatives in Aboriginal Communities
Hollow Water’s Community Holistic Circle Healing
Traditional Aboriginal Justice
Restorative Justice Principles in the Youth Criminal Justice Act
Critical Issues in Restorative/Community Justice
Restorative Justice in Urban Centres
Crime Victims and Restorative Justice
Assessing the Effectiveness of Restorative Justice
The Dynamics of Community Justice
The Role of the Police in Restorative Justice

Unit 4: The Key Players in the Community Policing

Chapter 6: The Community Policing Police Service
Organizational Requirements for Community Policing
The Police Leader and Community Policing
Mission, Value, and Vision Statements
Redesigning the Organizational Structure
Reorienting the Organizations: The Police Service as a Learning Organization
Adopting a Corporate Model: Strategies and Measures
Organization for Service Delivery
Community Policing Teams
Community Policing in Winnipeg
Customized Policing Services: The OPP Services Delivery Process
Stage 1. Preparation: Preparing for a Customized Police Service
Stage 2. Operations: The Delivery of Customized Policing Services
Stage 3. Review: The Customized Policing Report Card
How They Do It: How the OPP Delivers Community Policing
Stage 1. Preparation
Stage 2. Operations
Stage 3. Review

Chapter 7: Implementing Community Policing
Why a Corporate Model?
The Transformation of the Edmonton Police Service
Responding to the Challenge: The Development of a New Model of Service Delivery
Empowerment and Ownership: A New Role for Patrol Officers
Outcomes and Effectiveness of the EPS Model of Service Delivery
The EPS and Organizational Reform
Final Thoughts on the EPS and Community Policing
The City of Montreal Police Service Neighborhood Policing Project
Reorganization for Community Policing
The Surrey RCMP Community Policing Project
The Evolution of Community Policing in the Halton Regional Police Service
Lessons from the Halton Regional Police Service Experience
Planning for Change: The Durham Regional Police Service Organizational Renewal Project
Implementation Issue 1. Defining Community Policing
Implementation Issue 2. Structural Changes
Implementation Issue 3. Communication
Implementation Issue 4. Relationships with Associations
Implementation Issue 5. Leadership Development
Implementation Issue 6. Training Development/Certification
Implementation Issue 7. Resourcing Requirements
Implementation Issue 8. Change Management
Regional Police Services and Community Policing
Integrated Policing
The Ottawa Police Service and Community Policing
Application of the Corporate Model in Policing
Planning within a Community Policing Framework: The Guelph Police Service
The Calgary Police Service Business Plan
Chapter Summary

Chapter 8: The Community Police Officer
Recruiting Police Officers
Education and the Community Police Officer
The Changing Practice of Recruiting: Promoting Diversity
Gays and Lesbians
Members of First Nations
Visible and Cultural Minorities
The Controversy over Recruiting Standards for Women and Visible Minorities
Recruit Training
From the Academy to the Street: Operational Field Training
In-Service Training
On the Line: The New Community Police Officer
The Community Police Officer as a Generalist
The Police Personality and Community Policing
Attributes of the Police Working Personality
The Occupational Subculture of Police and Community Policing
The Positive and Negative Features of the Police Subculture
Patrol Officer Resistance to Community Policing
Distrust of Senior Police Leaders
Fear of Being Marginalized
Lack of Time
Performance Evaluations
Lack of Training or Experience with Community Policing
Absence of Patrol Officer Input into Community Strategies and Plans
Chapter Summary

Chapter 9: The Community and Community Policing
The Community in Community Policing
Issue 1.Whose Personality Is It to Get the Community Involved?
Issue 2. Who and What Is the Community
Issue 3. What Is the Level and Distribution of Community Participation?
Issue 4. Who Trains the Community?
Issue 5. The Potential and Limits of Community Involvement
Cultural and Visible Minority Communities and Community Policing
Aboriginal Communities and the Police
Community Policing and Social Development
Developing Police-Community Partnerships
Step 1. Identify Potential Partnerships
Step 2. Develop a Clear Understanding of the Neighborhood or Community Being Policed
Step 3. Initiate Dialogue
Step 4. Organize Community Meetings
Step 5. Identify Issues
Step 6. Formulate a Plan or Develop an Action Plan
Step 7. Take Action
Step 8. Maintain the Partnership
Step 9. Document Activities
Determining Community Priorities and Concerns: The Community Policing Toolbox
Developing a Community Profile
Educating the Community
Potential Obstacles to Establishing Partnerships with the Community
Role and Activities for Community Residents
Serving as Volunteers
Corporate Sponsorship
Community Policing Committees
Types of Community Committees
Committee Membership and Member Responsibilities
Operating Effective Committees
Chapter Summary


Copyright (c) 2007, Curt T. Griffiths. All Rights Reserved.
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